Abortion: terms, types, effects l Likar.info

If a woman became pregnant, decided to abortion, she must understand the procedure and its possible consequences.

Abortion can be spontaneous or artificial, and in some cases the termination of pregnancy is medically necessary, for example, the woman has a chronic disease of the eyes, lungs, kidneys, cardiovascular system, Oncology etc. In any case, women need to weigh the pros and cons and make the decision carefully, because the abortion can trigger a very serious illness until the cancer.

Abortion is legal in many countries of the world:

  • 61 countries, including most of Europe, allows abortion without any restrictions
  • 26 countries prohibit abortion in General, without any exceptions
  • Other countries allow abortion with restrictions, such as saving the mother’s life or protect her health

The General sequence of actions

First of all, you need to contact a specialized clinic or the antenatal clinic at the place of residence. No initiative in this matter is invalid only specialist on the basis of the survey of women and laboratory studies should draw conclusions about the pregnancy and, depending on this, as well as the health status of women recommend possible in the specific case of abortion method.

After the abortion is done, the woman some time to be observed by a gynecologist. This is necessary in order to identify and assign the correct treatment of the consequences of abortion, if there are any.

Medical abortion is carried out ONLY by gynecologist with special training and certificate. Yourself to do it – deadly!

Medical abortion is carried out by two drugs in the form of tablets: mifepristone and misoprostol. Medical abortion is conducted on the terms to 8 weeks but is not for everyone. The doctor will recommend to abandon this method if:

  • You have an ectopic pregnancy
  • You are allergic to mifepristone or misoprostol
  • You have blood disorders or are taking blood thinners
  • You have severe liver disease, kidney or lungs
  • You have an intrauterine device (IUD)
  • You take corticosteroids for a long time


One of the drugs the doctor gives clinic. It blocks the hormone progesterone, which is essential to the embryo for introduction into the uterus and subsequent growth. Misoprostol will need to take home. You take it a few hours or up to 4 days after the first pill. The tablet can be taken orally or placed in the vagina. In 1-4 hours after administration of misoprostol cramps and heavy bleeding.

Other symptoms after taking pills include:

  • Small blood clots
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Sweating
  • Dizziness


Most women have a termination of pregnancy occurs after 4-5 hours after taking the pills. The other process takes up to 2 days. So you may have satvahanas.

Menses should resume in about 4-6 weeks after an abortion, ovulation occurs within 3 weeks after taking the medicine. Once ovulation returns to normal, you can again get pregnant. Your doctor may advise you to abstain from sex for a week or two after the abortion.

Medical abortion should not affect your ability to get pregnant in the future.

Methotrexate and misoprostol

Methotrexate and misoprostol is the method of abortion used in the first 7 weeks of pregnancy.

Methotrexate is a cure for cancer. In the same way as it stops the cancer cells from reproducing, it stops cell division in the embryo. Misoprostol is used for the removal of the contents from the uterus. This method takes more time than the mifepristone and misoprostol and it is rarely used for planned abortions. Basically, the doctors use it for women with an ectopic pregnancy. An ectopic pregnancy can be life-threatening.

You should not use this method if:

  • You have liver disease, kidney or inflammatory bowel disease
  • You have epileptic seizures more than once a week
  • You are taking blood thinners
  • You have an Allergy to methotrexate or misoprostol
  • You have a problem with blood clotting
  • You have severe anaemia
  • You have Navy


You are taking methotrexate to the doctor’s office. It can be injection or pill. Misoprostolpurchase will take 4-6 days at home. Abortion will start in 1-12 hours after you take medicine. You will have cramps and bleeding. The bleeding can be severe and last for 4-8 hours.


The completion of the abortion can take several days or weeks. Some women recovery takes a month. To 1-2 percent of women the medicine is not working. If this happens, you have to have a surgical abortion.

Side effects from methotrexate and misoprostol include:

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Fever
  • Chills

Menses should resume in a month or two after the abortion. Abortion should not affect your ability to get pregnant in the future. Your doctor may recommend you one or two-week abstinence from sex.

Mini-abortion or vacuum aspiration

Vacuum aspiration is performed during the first trimester (first 12 weeks) or early second trimester of pregnancy (12-16 weeks) of pregnancy. In some cases, the vacuum aspherization choose as a primary method of abortion. But sometimes you need it after medical abortion failed to terminate the pregnancy. This method may not be appropriate if you have:

  • Abnormally shaped or functioning uterus
  • Disorders of blood coagulation
  • Infection
  • Serious health problems


With the help of special pump removes the fetus and placenta from the uterus. The procedure is performed exclusively in medical facilities. Vacuum aspiration is painless method, but you can feel cramping because climate will be reduced with the removal of the tissue.

The procedure lasts from 5 to 10 minutes. You may need to stay in hospital for several hours after that to ensure that the abortion completed.

Side effects after the procedure, vacuum aspiration can include:

  • Bleeding
  • Nausea
  • Sweating
  • Golovokrugenie


Because of the discomfort you may need to take a few days off at work. Avoid sex for at least a week after the procedure. The menstrual cycle should return to normal about 4-6 weeks after the procedure.

Holding this kind of abortion should not affect your ability to get pregnant in the future. Doctor may advise you to use contraceptives to prevent pregnancy in the first few weeks after an abortion.

Dilation and evacuation

Dilation and evacuation (IER) is a method of abortion used in the second trimester, usually after the 14th week of pregnancy. Usually it is recommended for those who later learned about the pregnancy, or decide to end the pregnancy because the fetus has a serious abnormality or a medical problem.


IER uses a combination of vacuum aspiration, forceps, and dilation and curettage. First, the doctor dilates the cervix to facilitate removal of the tissues of pregnancy. And then uses forceps to remove the fetus and placenta, the tube for suction of the contents of the uterus and curettage to clean the lining of the uterus.

The procedure can be painful, but your doctor may offer you anesthesia to prevent discomfort. Procedure usually takes less than 30 minutes. You will be able to return home the same day.

Side effects of IER include:

  • Bleeding
  • Spasms
  • Nausea


Side effects may bother you for two weeks after the procedure. During this time avoid sex and strenuous exercise.

Menses should resume in 4-8 weeks after the procedure. Conducting the IER should not affect your chances of getting pregnant in the future.

Abortion in the later stages

Some argue that abortion is late if it is we can after the 20th week of pregnancy. Other in the third trimester. Still others believe that late-term abortion performed when the fetus is viable, meaning it can survive outside of the uterus. Most States prohibit or restrict such motor, except when the mother’s life is at risk. You can have a late abortion if:

  • The fetus is not viable or has a serious disease
  • Pregnancy threatens your health

Procedures that can be performed in the third trimester include:

  • IER
  • Cesarean section
  • Artificial birth

Even if an abortion is performed in late pregnancy, it should not affect your ability to conceive in the future.

Is emergency contraception an abortion?

Taking certain tablets for 5 days after unprotected sex can prevent you from getting pregnant. But emergency contraception is not a pill for abortion. If you are already pregnant it will not be able to terminate the pregnancy.

Contraception after abortion

If you are sexually active and do not want another pregnancy, you should talk to your doctor about the options of contraception. It must be done before you start having sex again. There are many options, many of which do not require daily pill-taking. Talk to your doctor to see which method will be best for you, and how soon you can start to apply it.

The consequences of abortion

Equally can hurt the abortion done as early and late, but the inexorable statistics show that the longer the gestation, the higher the probability of negative consequences. Every body is different, and to predict his reaction to such interference in advance is impossible, because abortion entails physiological and hormonal changes.

It is important to know that the consequences can profitshares, and can after a while. So, early the consequences of abortion can be:

  • Bleeding
  • Complications after anesthesia
  • Damage to the cervix, walls of the uterus and of the abdominal organs
  • The incomplete removal of fetal tissues in the uterus

Among the later consequences of an abortion are:

  • Various infections
  • Inflammation of the tissues of the uterus (parametritis, endometritis)
  • Placental polyp
  • Peritonitis (inflammation of peritoneum)

Also women can take place post abortion syndrome (psychiatric symptoms).

In addition, abortion may have longer term effects such as menstrual disorders, chronic diseases of the genitourinary system, obstetric pathology of varying severity, premature birth in the next pregnancy (especially if abortion ended the first pregnancy), uterine fibroids, infertility.

Cancer another possible distant in time the terrible consequence of abortion. This can happen for the following reasons. During pregnancy a woman’s body gradually rebuilt, and a sharp suppression of pregnancy – a violation of ovarian function, mammary glands, and other organs. This failure of hormonal activity and can lead to the formation of various tumors.

When to seek help

Moderate bleeding is normal after an abortion, but if it is more intense than normal menstrual and lasts more than two weeks, you need to go to the doctor. Another symptom that you need to pay attention and not to delay going to a specialist is a pain in the abdomen and vomiting. These symptoms may indicate damage to the large vessels of the uterus, ligaments or intestines.

Violation of the cycle after a medical abortion is a good reason to go to a gynecologist who was doing this abortion. This is not the norm.

Вергуленко-Фаль Алла Олеговна

Alla Olegovna

obstetrician-gynecologist (det.), Kiev

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Infection after abortion is quite common, since even the most sterile instruments through the vagina, can transfer microorganisms into the uterus. So if a few days after the surgery has a high fever, had severe pain in the abdomen, back, weakness and all this is accompanied by profuse bleeding urgent medical attention.